As the leading member of the Committee of Public Safety from , Robespierre encouraged the execution, mostly by guillotine, of more than 17, enemies of the Revolution. The day after his arrest, Robespierre and 21 of his followers were guillotined before a cheering mob in the Place de la Revolution in Paris. Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, France, in He studied law through a scholarship and in was elected to be a representative of the Arras commoners in the Estates General. After the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, declared itself the National Assembly, Robespierre became a prominent member of the Revolutionary body.
News of his defection caused alarm in Paris, where imminent defeat by the Austrians and their allies was feared. In light of this threat, the Girondin leader Maximin Isnard proposed the creation of a nine-member Committee of Public Safety. Isnard was supported in this effort by Georges Danton , who declared: "This Committee is precisely what we want, a hand to grasp the weapon of the Revolutionary Tribunal ". Closely associated with the leadership of Danton, it was initially known as the Danton Committee. When the Committee was recomposed on 10 July , Danton was not included. Nevertheless, he continued to support the centralization of power by the Committee.
Freebase 2. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee — composed at first of nine, and later of twelve members — was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial, and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.
Formed in April of , it was established by the National Convention , the revolutionary government of France at the time. In the months before its creation, French revolutionaries were facing intense pressure from foreign threats and invasion by surrounding nations loyal to Louis XVI. As a result, many members of the National Convention became increasingly paranoid from the perceived threat of external and internal challenges to the revolution.